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Artemisinins Target GABA A Receptor Signaling and Impair alpha Cell Identity.


Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm. We show that the protein gephyrin is the mammalian target of these antimalarial drugs and that the mechanism of action of these molecules depends on the enhancement of GABAA receptor signaling. Our results in zebrafish, rodents, and primary human pancreatic islets identify gephyrin as a druggable target for the regeneration of pancreatic β cell mass from α cells.

GSE73727 Samples



Cell Metadata and BAM Files

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BAM Files Run Accession Number Sample Accession Number Organism Organ/Tissue Dev. Stage Cell Type Sequencer Protocol Assay Type Library Layout Ontology Term Cell Cycle Phase
SRR2558111 SAMN04145828 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558112 SAMN04145829 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558113 SAMN04145830 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000803[pancreatic delta cell] S
SRR2558114 SAMN04145831 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] S
SRR2558115 SAMN04145832 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 G1.S
SRR2558116 SAMN04145833 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558117 SAMN04145834 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] G1.S
SRR2558118 SAMN04145835 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000803[pancreatic delta cell] G2
SRR2558119 SAMN04145836 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2.M
SRR2558120 SAMN04145837 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 M.G1
SRR2558121 SAMN04145838 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] S
SRR2558122 SAMN04145839 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558123 SAMN04145840 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2.M
SRR2558124 SAMN04145841 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558125 SAMN04145842 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G2
SRR2558126 SAMN04145843 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558127 SAMN04145844 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G1.S
SRR2558128 SAMN04145845 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558129 SAMN04145846 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558130 SAMN04145847 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G1.S
SRR2558131 SAMN04145848 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558132 SAMN04145849 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 G2.M
SRR2558133 SAMN04145850 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558134 SAMN04145779 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 G2.M
SRR2558135 SAMN04145780 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558136 SAMN04145781 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558137 SAMN04145782 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] G1.S
SRR2558138 SAMN04145783 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G2
SRR2558139 SAMN04145784 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 S
SRR2558140 SAMN04145792 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558141 SAMN04145785 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] S
SRR2558142 SAMN04145786 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2.M
SRR2558143 SAMN04145787 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2.M
SRR2558144 SAMN04145788 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558145 SAMN04145789 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558146 SAMN04145790 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G2
SRR2558147 SAMN04145791 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 G2
SRR2558148 SAMN04145793 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558149 SAMN04145794 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558150 SAMN04145795 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 M.G1
SRR2558151 SAMN04145796 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558152 SAMN04145797 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] S
SRR2558153 SAMN04145798 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558154 SAMN04145799 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558155 SAMN04145800 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558156 SAMN04145801 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558157 SAMN04145802 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558158 SAMN04145803 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558159 SAMN04145804 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] M.G1
SRR2558160 SAMN04145805 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000805[pancreatic PP cell] G2
SRR2558161 SAMN04145806 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] M.G1
SRR2558162 SAMN04145807 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] M.G1
SRR2558163 SAMN04145808 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558164 SAMN04145825 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end FMA:10419 G2.M
SRR2558165 SAMN04145826 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G1.S
SRR2558166 SAMN04145827 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] G1.S
SRR2558167 SAMN04145809 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] G2.M
SRR2558168 SAMN04145810 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558169 SAMN04145811 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558170 SAMN04145812 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558171 SAMN04145813 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558172 SAMN04145814 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] S
SRR2558173 SAMN04145815 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G2.M
SRR2558174 SAMN04145816 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] M.G1
SRR2558175 SAMN04145817 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] G2
SRR2558176 SAMN04145818 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] M.G1
SRR2558177 SAMN04145819 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end CL:0002064 [pancreatic acinar cell] M.G1
SRR2558178 SAMN04145820 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558179 SAMN04145821 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000783[pancreatic beta cell] S
SRR2558180 SAMN04145822 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000990[pancreatic alpha cell] G2
SRR2558181 SAMN04145823 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] G2
SRR2558182 SAMN04145824 Homo sapiens Pancreas Adult Pancreatic islet Illumina HiSeq 1500 Smart‐Seq2 RNA-Seq Single-end BTO:0000991 [pancreatic islet] M.G1

FASTQC Report



FASTQC File ID Cell Accession Number FASTQC Report Link No. Sequence Tags
SRR2558111_1 SRR2558111 Preview 10196119
SRR2558112_1 SRR2558112 Preview 7146828
SRR2558113_1 SRR2558113 Preview 13750839
SRR2558114_1 SRR2558114 Preview 8290738
SRR2558115_1 SRR2558115 Preview 10634744
SRR2558116_1 SRR2558116 Preview 8272638
SRR2558117_1 SRR2558117 Preview 7979085
SRR2558118_1 SRR2558118 Preview 14569463
SRR2558119_1 SRR2558119 Preview 12663406
SRR2558120_1 SRR2558120 Preview 8163129
SRR2558121_1 SRR2558121 Preview 12932654
SRR2558122_1 SRR2558122 Preview 9682274
SRR2558123_1 SRR2558123 Preview 13200715
SRR2558124_1 SRR2558124 Preview 12158826
SRR2558125_1 SRR2558125 Preview 15713191
SRR2558126_1 SRR2558126 Preview 13415568
SRR2558127_1 SRR2558127 Preview 15797325
SRR2558128_1 SRR2558128 Preview 9135358
SRR2558129_1 SRR2558129 Preview 11908639
SRR2558130_1 SRR2558130 Preview 10802340
SRR2558131_1 SRR2558131 Preview 9299648
SRR2558132_1 SRR2558132 Preview 8654899
SRR2558133_1 SRR2558133 Preview 14424832
SRR2558134_1 SRR2558134 Preview 10077264
SRR2558135_1 SRR2558135 Preview 11493459
SRR2558136_1 SRR2558136 Preview 9205575
SRR2558137_1 SRR2558137 Preview 9233363
SRR2558138_1 SRR2558138 Preview 10127224
SRR2558139_1 SRR2558139 Preview 10404133
SRR2558140_1 SRR2558140 Preview 14957553
SRR2558141_1 SRR2558141 Preview 14089467
SRR2558142_1 SRR2558142 Preview 13222913
SRR2558143_1 SRR2558143 Preview 11821366
SRR2558144_1 SRR2558144 Preview 9327140
SRR2558145_1 SRR2558145 Preview 10705379
SRR2558146_1 SRR2558146 Preview 10554676
SRR2558147_1 SRR2558147 Preview 9804226
SRR2558148_1 SRR2558148 Preview 10568606
SRR2558149_1 SRR2558149 Preview 10678772
SRR2558150_1 SRR2558150 Preview 10468827
SRR2558151_1 SRR2558151 Preview 11593259
SRR2558152_1 SRR2558152 Preview 10414213
SRR2558153_1 SRR2558153 Preview 10089206
SRR2558154_1 SRR2558154 Preview 12949287
SRR2558155_1 SRR2558155 Preview 13485977
SRR2558156_1 SRR2558156 Preview 13594721
SRR2558157_1 SRR2558157 Preview 13674765
SRR2558158_1 SRR2558158 Preview 9939372
SRR2558159_1 SRR2558159 Preview 31908570
SRR2558160_1 SRR2558160 Preview 19832666
SRR2558161_1 SRR2558161 Preview 27466011
SRR2558162_1 SRR2558162 Preview 25718117
SRR2558163_1 SRR2558163 Preview 14383228
SRR2558164_1 SRR2558164 Preview 30904806
SRR2558165_1 SRR2558165 Preview 24676414
SRR2558166_1 SRR2558166 Preview 19893304
SRR2558167_1 SRR2558167 Preview 18285940
SRR2558168_1 SRR2558168 Preview 16219910
SRR2558169_1 SRR2558169 Preview 26141498
SRR2558170_1 SRR2558170 Preview 27881710
SRR2558171_1 SRR2558171 Preview 16307640
SRR2558172_1 SRR2558172 Preview 11908692
SRR2558173_1 SRR2558173 Preview 14014595
SRR2558174_1 SRR2558174 Preview 4800014
SRR2558175_1 SRR2558175 Preview 15143528
SRR2558176_1 SRR2558176 Preview 13874440
SRR2558177_1 SRR2558177 Preview 8462398
SRR2558178_1 SRR2558178 Preview 10612128
SRR2558179_1 SRR2558179 Preview 15162246
SRR2558180_1 SRR2558180 Preview 13038010
SRR2558181_1 SRR2558181 Preview 31685347
SRR2558182_1 SRR2558182 Preview 26858691


Organism : Homo sapiens

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File Size : 181M

Human Cell Data

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tSNE image.
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PCA image.
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Gene Body Coverage image.

Data Resources


Organism Run Metadata Link Data Repository Link Pubmed Record Link Author Provided Files DAVID Annotation Chart Link DAVID Annotation Table Link Gene Body Coverage Matrix Link PCA Matrix Link Krona Plot Img Link Unmapped Reads Link Expression Correlation
Homo sapiens